W3C

HTML 5

A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML

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4.11 Interactive elements

4.11.1 The details element

Categories
Flow content.
Interactive content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where flow content is expected.
Content model:
One legend element followed by flow content.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
open
DOM interface:
interface HTMLDetailsElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute boolean open;
};

The details element represents additional information or controls which the user can obtain on demand.

The details element is not appropriate for footnotes. Please see the section on footnotes for details on how to mark up footnotes.

The first element child of a details element, if it is a legend element, represents the summary of the details.

If the first element is not a legend element, the UA should provide its own legend (e.g. "Details").

The open content attribute is a boolean attribute. If present, it indicates that the details are to be shown to the user. If the attribute is absent, the details are not to be shown.

If the attribute is removed, then the details should be hidden. If the attribute is added, the details should be shown.

The user agent should allow the user to request that the details be shown or hidden. To honor a request for the details to be shown, the user agent must set the open attribute on the element to the value open. To honor a request for the details to be hidden, the user agent must remove the open attribute from the element.

The open attribute must reflect the open content attribute.

4.11.2 The command element

Categories
Metadata content.
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
type
label
icon
disabled
checked
radiogroup
Also, the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLCommandElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString label;
           attribute DOMString icon;
           attribute boolean disabled;
           attribute boolean checked;
           attribute DOMString radiogroup;
};

The command element represents a command that the user can invoke.

The type attribute indicates the kind of command: either a normal command with an associated action, or a state or option that can be toggled, or a selection of one item from a list of items.

The attribute is an enumerated attribute with three keywords and states. The keyword "command" maps to the Command state, the checkbox" maps to the Checkbox, and the "radio" keyword maps to the Radio state. The missing value default is the Command state.

The Command state

The element represents a normal command with an associated action.

The Checkbox state

The element represents a state or option that can be toggled.

The Radio state

The element represents a selection of one item from a list of items.

The label attribute gives the name of the command, as shown to the user.

The title attribute gives a hint describing the command, which might be shown to the user to help him.

The icon attribute gives a picture that represents the command. If the attribute is specified, the attribute's value must contain a valid URL. To obtain the absolute URL of the icon, the attribute's value must be resolved relative to the element.

The disabled attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that the command is not available in the current state.

The distinction between disabled and hidden is subtle. A command would be disabled if, in the same context, it could be enabled if only certain aspects of the situation were changed. A command would be marked as hidden if, in that situation, the command will never be enabled. For example, in the context menu for a water faucet, the command "open" might be disabled if the faucet is already open, but the command "eat" would be marked hidden since the faucet could never be eaten.

The checked attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that the command is selected. The attribute must be omitted unless the type attribute is in either the Checkbox state or the Radio state.

The radiogroup attribute gives the name of the group of commands that will be toggled when the command itself is toggled, for commands whose type attribute has the value "radio". The scope of the name is the child list of the parent element. The attribute must be omitted unless the type attribute is in the Radio state.

The type, label, icon, disabled, checked, and radiogroup DOM attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The element's activation behavior depends on the value of the type attribute of the element, as follows:

If the type attribute is in the Checkbox state

If the element has a checked attribute, the UA must remove that attribute. Otherwise, the UA must add a checked attribute, with the literal value checked. The UA must then fire a click event at the element.

If the type attribute is in the Radio state

If the element has a parent, then the UA must walk the list of child nodes of that parent element, and for each node that is a command element, if that element has a radiogroup attribute whose value exactly matches the current element's (treating missing radiogroup attributes as if they were the empty string), and has a checked attribute, must remove that attribute.

Then, the element's checked attribute attribute must be set to the literal value checked and the user agent must fire a click event at the element.

Otherwise

The element has no activation behavior.

Firing a synthetic click event at the element does not cause any of the actions described above to happen.

command elements are not rendered unless they form part of a menu.

4.11.3 The bb element

Categories
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Interactive content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content, but there must be no interactive content descendant.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
type
DOM interface:
interface HTMLBrowserButtonElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString type;
  readonly attribute boolean supported;
  readonly attribute boolean disabled;
};

The bb element represents a user agent command that the user can invoke.

The type attribute indicates the kind of command. The type attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords and states for the attribute — the keywords in the left column map to the states listed in the cell in the second column on the same row as the keyword.

Keyword State
makeapp make application

The missing value default state is the null state.

Each state has an action and a relevance, defined in the following sections.

When the attribute is in the null state, the action is to not do anything, and the relevance is unconditionally false.

A bb element whose type attribute is in a state whose relevance is true must be enabled. Conversely, a bb element whose type attribute is in a state whose relevance is false must be disabled.

If a bb element is enabled, it will match the :enabled pseudo-class; otherwise, it will match the :disabled pseudo-class.

User agents should allow users to invoke bb elements when they are enabled. When a user invokes a bb element, its type attribute's state's action must be invoked.

When the element has no descendant element children and has no descendant text node children of non-zero length, the element represents a browser button with a user-agent-defined icon or text representing the type attribute's state's action and relevance (enabled vs disabled). Otherwise, the element represents its children.

bb . supported

Returns true if the value in the type attribute is a value that the user agent supports. Otherwise, returns false.

bb . disabled

Returns false if the user can invoke the element's action (i.e. if the element's relevance is true). Otherwise, returns true.

The type DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The supported DOM attribute must return true if the type attribute is in a state other than the null state and the user agent supports that state's action (i.e. when the attribute's value is one that the user agent recognizes and supports), and false otherwise.

The disabled DOM attribute must return true if the element is disabled, and false otherwise (i.e. it returns the opposite of the type attribute's state's relevance).

4.11.3.1 Browser button types
4.11.3.1.1 The make application state

Some user agents support making sites accessible as independent applications, as if they were not Web sites at all. The make application state exists to allow Web pages to offer themselves to the user as targets for this mode of operation.

The action of the make application state is to confirm the user's intent to use the current site in a standalone fashion, and, provided the user's intent is confirmed, offer the user a way to make the resource identified by the document's address available in such a fashion.

The confirmation is needed because it is relatively easy to trick users into activating buttons. The confirmation could, e.g. take the form of asking the user where to "save" the application, or non-modal information panel that is clearly from the user agent and gives the user the opportunity to drag an icon to their system's application launcher.

The relevance of the make application state is false if the user agent is already handling the site in such a fashion, or if the user agent doesn't support making the site available in that fashion, and true otherwise.

In the following example, a few links are listed on an application's page, to allow the user perform certain actions, including making the application standalone:

<menu>
 <li><a href="settings.html" onclick="panels.show('settings')">Settings</a>
 <li><bb type="makeapp">Download standalone application</bb>
 <li><a href="help.html" onclick="panels.show('help')">Help</a>
 <li><a href="logout.html" onclick="panels.show('logout')">Sign out</a>
</menu>

With the following stylesheet, it could be make to look like a single line of text with vertical bars separating the options, with the "make app" option disappearing when it's not supported or relevant:

menu li { display: none; }
menu li:enabled { display: inline; }
menu li:not(:first-child)::before { content: ' | '; }

This could look like this:

"Settings | Download standalone application | Help | Sign out"

The following example shows another way to do the same thing as the previous one, this time not relying on CSS support to hide the "make app" link if it doesn't apply:

<menu>
 <a href="settings.html" onclick="panels.show('settings')">Settings</a> |
 <bb type="makeapp" id="makeapp"> </bb>
 <a href="help.html" onclick="panels.show('help')">Help</a> |
 <a href="logout.html" onclick="panels.show('logout')">Sign out</a>
</menu>
<script>
 var bb = document.getElementById('makeapp');
 if (bb.supported && bb.enabled) {
   bb.parentNode.nextSibling.textContent = ' | ';
   bb.textContent = 'Download standalone application';
 } else {
   bb.parentNode.removeChild(bb);
 }
</script>
Categories
Flow content.
If the element's type attribute is in the tool bar state: Interactive content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where flow content is expected.
Content model:
Either: Zero or more li elements.
Or: Flow content.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
type
label
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMenuElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString label;
};

The menu element represents a list of commands.

The type attribute is an enumerated attribute indicating the kind of menu being declared. The attribute has three states. The context keyword maps to the context menu state, in which the element is declaring a context menu. The toolbar keyword maps to the tool bar state, in which the element is declaring a tool bar. The attribute may also be omitted. The missing value default is the list state, which indicates that the element is merely a list of commands that is neither declaring a context menu nor defining a tool bar.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the context menu state, then the element represents the commands of a context menu, and the user can only interact with the commands if that context menu is activated.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the tool bar state, then the element represents a list of active commands that the user can immediately interact with.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the list state, then the element either represents an unordered list of items (each represented by an li element), each of which represents a command that the user can perform or activate, or, if the element has no li element children, flow content describing available commands.

The label attribute gives the label of the menu. It is used by user agents to display nested menus in the UI. For example, a context menu containing another menu would use the nested menu's label attribute for the submenu's menu label.

The type and label DOM attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

This section is non-normative.

...

4.11.4.2 Building menus and tool bars

A menu (or tool bar) consists of a list of zero or more of the following components:

The list corresponding to a particular menu element is built by iterating over its child nodes. For each child node in tree order, the required behavior depends on what the node is, as follows:

An element that defines a command
Append the command to the menu, respecting its facets.
An hr element
An option element that has a value attribute set to the empty string, and has a disabled attribute, and whose textContent consists of a string of one or more hyphens (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS)
Append a separator to the menu.
An li element
A label element
Iterate over the children of the element.
A menu element with no label attribute
A select element
Append a separator to the menu, then iterate over the children of the menu or select element, then append another separator.
A menu element with a label attribute
An optgroup element with a label attribute
Append a submenu to the menu, using the value of the element's label attribute as the label of the menu. The submenu must be constructed by taking the element and creating a new menu for it using the complete process described in this section.
Any other node
Ignore the node.

Once all the nodes have been processed as described above, the user agent must the post-process the menu as follows:

  1. Any menu item with no label, or whose label is the empty string, must be removed.
  2. Any sequence of two or more separators in a row must be collapsed to a single separator.
  3. Any separator at the start or end of the menu must be removed.
4.11.4.3 Context menus

The contextmenu attribute gives the element's context menu. The value must be the ID of a menu element in the DOM. If the node that would be obtained by the invoking the getElementById() method using the attribute's value as the only argument is null or not a menu element, then the element has no assigned context menu. Otherwise, the element's assigned context menu is the element so identified.

When an element's context menu is requested (e.g. by the user right-clicking the element, or pressing a context menu key), the UA must fire a simple event called contextmenu that bubbles and is cancelable at the element for which the menu was requested.

Typically, therefore, the firing of the contextmenu event will be the default action of a mouseup or keyup event. The exact sequence of events is UA-dependent, as it will vary based on platform conventions.

The default action of the contextmenu event depends on whether the element or one of its ancestors has a context menu assigned (using the contextmenu attribute) or not. If there is no context menu assigned, the default action must be for the user agent to show its default context menu, if it has one.

If the element or one of its ancestors does have a context menu assigned, then the user agent must fire a simple event called show at the menu element of the context menu of the nearest ancestor (including the element itself) with one assigned.

The default action of this event is that the user agent must show a context menu built from the menu element.

The user agent may also provide access to its default context menu, if any, with the context menu shown. For example, it could merge the menu items from the two menus together, or provide the page's context menu as a submenu of the default menu.

If the user dismisses the menu without making a selection, nothing in particular happens.

If the user selects a menu item that represents a command, then the UA must invoke that command's Action.

Context menus must not, while being shown, reflect changes in the DOM; they are constructed as the default action of the show event and must remain like that until dismissed.

User agents may provide means for bypassing the context menu processing model, ensuring that the user can always access the UA's default context menus. For example, the user agent could handle right-clicks that have the Shift key depressed in such a way that it does not fire the contextmenu event and instead always shows the default context menu.

The contextMenu attribute must reflect the contextmenu content attribute.

4.11.4.4 Tool bars

When a menu element has a type attribute in the tool bar state, then the user agent must build the menu for that menu element, and use the result in the rendering.

The user agent must reflect changes made to the menu's DOM, by immediately rebuilding the menu.

4.11.5 Commands

A command is the abstraction behind menu items, buttons, and links.

Commands are defined to have the following facets:

Type
The kind of command: "command", meaning it is a normal command; "radio", meaning that triggering the command will, amongst other things, set the Checked State to true (and probably uncheck some other commands); or "checkbox", meaning that triggering the command will, amongst other things, toggle the value of the Checked State.
ID
The name of the command, for referring to the command from the markup or from script. If a command has no ID, it is an anonymous command.
Label
The name of the command as seen by the user.
Hint
A helpful or descriptive string that can be shown to the user.
Icon
An absolute URL identifying a graphical image that represents the action. A command might not have an Icon.
Access Key
A key combination selected by the user agent that triggers the command. A command might not have an Access Key.
Hidden State
Whether the command is hidden or not (basically, whether it should be shown in menus).
Disabled State
Whether the command is relevant and can be triggered or not.
Checked State
Whether the command is checked or not.
Action
The actual effect that triggering the command will have. This could be a scripted event handler, a URL to which to navigate, or a form submission.

These facets are exposed on elements using the command API:

element . commandType

Exposes the Type facet of the command.

element . id

Exposes the ID facet of the command.

element . label

Exposes the Label facet of the command.

element . title

Exposes the Hint facet of the command.

element . icon

Exposes the Icon facet of the command.

element . accessKeyLabel

Exposes the Access Key facet of the command.

element . hidden

Exposes the Hidden State facet of the command.

element . disabled

Exposes the Disabled State facet of the command.

element . checked

Exposes the Checked State facet of the command.

element . click()

Triggers the Action of the command.

The commandType attribute must return a string whose value is either "command", "radio", or "checked", depending on whether the Type of the command defined by the element is "command", "radio", or "checked" respectively. If the element does not define a command, it must return null.

The label attribute must return the command's Label, or null if the element does not define a command or does not specify a Label. This attribute will be shadowed by the label DOM attribute on option and command elements.

The icon attribute must return the absolute URL of the command's Icon. If the element does not specify an icon, or if the element does not define a command, then the attribute must return null. This attribute will be shadowed by the icon DOM attribute on command elements.

The disabled attribute must return true if the command's Disabled State is that the command is disabled, and false if the command is not disabled. This attribute is not affected by the command's Hidden State. If the element does not define a command, the attribute must return false. This attribute will be shadowed by the disabled attribute on button, input, option, and command elements.

The checked attribute must return true if the command's Checked State is that the command is checked, and false if it is that the command is not checked. If the element does not define a command, the attribute must return false. This attribute will be shadowed by the checked attribute on input and command elements.

The ID facet is exposed by the the id DOM attribute, the Hint facet is exposed by the title DOM attribute, the AccessKey facet is exposed by the accessKeyLabel DOM attribute, and the Hidden State facet is exposed by the hidden DOM attribute.


document . commands

Returns an HTMLCollection of the elements in the Document that define commands and have IDs.

The commands attribute of the document's HTMLDocument interface must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only elements that define commands and have IDs.


User agents may expose the commands whose Hidden State facet is false (visible), e.g. in the user agent's menu bar. User agents are encouraged to do this especially for commands that have Access Keys, as a way to advertise those keys to the user.

4.11.5.1 Using the a element to define a command

An a element with an href attribute defines a command.

The Type of the command is "command".

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the string given by the element's textContent DOM attribute.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the element. If the attribute is not present, the Hint is the empty string.

The Icon of the command is the absolute URL obtained from resolving the value of the src attribute of the first img element descendant of the element, relative to that element, if there is such an element and resolving its attribute is successful. Otherwise, there is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key, if any.

The Hidden State of the command is true (hidden) if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State facet of the command is always false. (The command is always enabled.)

The Checked State of the command is always false. (The command is never checked.)

The Action of the command is to fire a click event at the element.

4.11.5.2 Using the button element to define a command

A button element always defines a command.

The Type, ID, Label, Hint, Icon, Access Key, Hidden State, Checked State, and Action facets of the command are determined as for a elements (see the previous section).

The Disabled State of the command mirrors the disabled state of the button.

4.11.5.3 Using the input element to define a command

An input element whose type attribute is in one of the Submit Button, Reset Button, Image Button, Button, Radio Button, or Checkbox states defines a command.

The Type of the command is "radio" if the type attribute is in the Radio Button state, "checkbox" if the type attribute is in the Checkbox state, and "command" otherwise.

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command depends on the Type of the command:

If the Type is "command", then it is the string given by the value attribute, if any, and a UA-dependent, locale-dependent value that the UA uses to label the button itself if the attribute is absent.

Otherwise, the Type is "radio" or "checkbox". If the element is a labeled control, the textContent of the first label element in tree order whose labeled control is the element in question is the Label (in DOM terms, this is the string given by element.labels[0].textContent). Otherwise, the value of the value attribute, if present, is the Label. Otherwise, the Label is the empty string.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the input element. If the attribute is not present, the Hint is the empty string.

If the element's type attribute is in the Image Button state, and the element has a src attribute, and that attribute's value can be successfully resolved relative to the element, then the Icon of the command is the absolute URL obtained from resolving that attribute that way. Otherwise, there is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key, if any.

The Hidden State of the command is true (hidden) if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State of the command mirrors the disabled state of the control.

The Checked State of the command is true if the command is of Type "radio" or "checkbox" and the element is checked attribute, and false otherwise.

The Action of the command, if the element has a defined activation behavior, is to run synthetic click activation steps on the element. Otherwise, it is just to fire a click event at the element.

4.11.5.4 Using the option element to define a command

An option element with an ancestor select element and either no value attribute or a value attribute that is not the empty string defines a command.

The Type of the command is "radio" if the option's nearest ancestor select element has no multiple attribute, and "checkbox" if it does.

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the value of the option element's label attribute, if there is one, or the value of the option element's textContent DOM attribute if there isn't.

The Hint of the command is the string given by the element's title attribute, if any, and the empty string if the attribute is absent.

There is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key, if any.

The Hidden State of the command is true (hidden) if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State of the command is true (disabled) if the element is disabled or if its nearest ancestor select element is disabled, and false otherwise.

The Checked State of the command is true (checked) if the element's selectedness is true, and false otherwise.

The Action of the command depends on its Type. If the command is of Type "radio" then it must pick the option element. Otherwise, it must toggle the option element.

4.11.5.5 Using the command element to define a command

A command element defines a command.

The Type of the command is "radio" if the command's type attribute is "radio", "checkbox" if the attribute's value is "checkbox", and "command" otherwise.

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the value of the element's label attribute, if there is one, or the empty string if it doesn't.

The Hint of the command is the string given by the element's title attribute, if any, and the empty string if the attribute is absent.

The Icon for the command is the absolute URL obtained from resolving the value of the element's icon attribute, relative to the element, if it has such an attribute and resolving it is successful. Otherwise, there is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key, if any.

The Hidden State of the command is true (hidden) if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State of the command is true (disabled) if the element has a disabled attribute, and false otherwise.

The Checked State of the command is true (checked) if the element has a checked attribute, and false otherwise.

The Action of the command, if the element has a defined activation behavior, is to run synthetic click activation steps on the element. Otherwise, it is just to fire a click event at the element.

4.11.5.6 Using the bb element to define a command

A bb element always defines a command.

The Type of the command is "command".

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the string given by the element's textContent DOM attribute, if that is not the empty string, or a user-agent-defined string appropriate for the bb element's type attribute's state.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the element. If the attribute is not present, the Hint is a user-agent-defined string appropriate for the bb element's type attribute's state.

The Icon of the command is the absolute URL obtained from resolving the value of the src attribute of the first img element descendant of the element, relative to that element, if there is such an element and resolving its attribute is successful. Otherwise, the Icon is a user-agent-defined image appropriate for the bb element's type attribute's state.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key, if any.

The Hidden State facet of the command is true (hidden) if the bb element's type attribute's state is null or if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State facet of the command is true if the bb element's type attribute's state's relevance is false, and true otherwise.

The Checked State of the command is always false. (The command is never checked.)

The Action of the command is to perform the action of the bb element's type attribute's state.

4.11.5.7 Using the accesskey attribute on a label element to define a command

A label element that has an assigned access key and a labeled control and whose labeled control defines a command, itself defines a command.

The Type of the command is "command".

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the string given by the element's textContent DOM attribute.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the element.

There is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key.

The Hidden State, Disabled State, and Action facets of the command are the same as the respective facets of the element's labeled control.

The Checked State of the command is always false. (The command is never checked.)

4.11.5.8 Using the accesskey attribute on a legend element to define a command

A legend element that has an assigned access key and is a child of a fieldset element that has a descendant that is not a descendant of the legend element and is neither a label element nor a legend element but that defines a command, itself defines a command.

The Type of the command is "command".

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command is the string given by the element's textContent DOM attribute.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the element.

There is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key.

The Hidden State, Disabled State, and Action facets of the command are the same as the respective facets of the first element in tree order that is a descendant of the parent of the legend element that defines a command but is not a descendant of the legend element and is neither a label nor a legend element.

The Checked State of the command is always false. (The command is never checked.)

4.11.5.9 Using the accesskey attribute to define a command on other elements

An element that has an assigned access key defines a command.

If one of the other sections that define elements that define commands define that this element defines a command, then that section applies to this element, and this section does not. Otherwise, this section applies to that element.

The Type of the command is "command".

The ID of the command is the value of the id attribute of the element, if the attribute is present and not empty. Otherwise the command is an anonymous command.

The Label of the command depends on the element. If the element is a labeled control, the textContent of the first label element in tree order whose labeled control is the element in question is the Label (in DOM terms, this is the string given by element.labels[0].textContent). Otherwise, the Label is the textContent of the element itself.

The Hint of the command is the value of the title attribute of the element. If the attribute is not present, the Hint is the empty string.

There is no Icon for the command.

The AccessKey of the command is the element's assigned access key.

The Hidden State of the command is true (hidden) if the element has a hidden attribute, and false otherwise.

The Disabled State facet of the command is always false. (The command is always enabled.)

The Checked State of the command is always false. (The command is never checked.)

The Action of the command, if the element has a defined activation behavior, is to run synthetic click activation steps on the element. Otherwise, if the element is focusable, the Action of the command is to run the focusing steps for the element and then to fire a click event at the element. Otherwise, Action of the command is just to fire a click event at the element.

4.12 Miscellaneous elements

4.12.1 The legend element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As the first child of a fieldset element.
As the first child of a details element.
As the first or last child of a figure element, if there are no other legend element children of that element.
Content model:
When the parent node is a figure element: flow content, but with no descendant figure elements.
Otherwise: phrasing content.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
interface HTMLLegendElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute HTMLFormElement form;
};

The legend element represents a title or explanatory caption for the rest of the contents of the legend element's parent element.

legend . form

Returns the element's form element, if any, or null otherwise.

The form DOM attribute's behavior depends on whether the legend element is in a fieldset element or not. If the legend has a fieldset element as its parent, then the form DOM attribute must return the same value as the form DOM attribute on that fieldset element. Otherwise, it must return null.

4.12.2 The div element

Categories
Flow content.
formatBlock candidate.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where flow content is expected.
Content model:
Flow content.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
DOM interface:
interface HTMLDivElement : HTMLElement {};

The div element has no special meaning at all. It represents its children. It can be used with the class, lang, and title attributes to mark up semantics common to a group of consecutive elements.

Authors are strongly encouraged to view the div element as an element of last resort, for when no other element is suitable. Use of the div element instead of more appropriate elements leads to poor accessibility for readers and poor maintainability for authors.

For example, a blog post would be marked up using article, a chapter using section, a page's navigation aids using nav, and a group of form controls using fieldset.

On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way. In the following example, we see div elements used as a way to set the language of two paragraphs at once, instead of setting the language on the two paragraph elements separately:

<article lang="en-US">
 <h1>My use of language and my cats</h1>
 <p>My cat's behavior hasn't changed much since her absence, except
 that she plays her new physique to the neighbors regularly, in an
 attempt to get pets.</p>
 <div lang="en-GB">
  <p>My other cat, coloured black and white, is a sweetie. He followed
  us to the pool today, walking down the pavement with us. Yesterday
  he apparently visited our neighbours. I wonder if he recognises that
  their flat is a mirror image of ours.</p>
  <p>Hm, I just noticed that in the last paragraph I used British
  English. But I'm supposed to write in American English. So I
  shouldn't say "pavement" or "flat" or "colour"...</p>
 </div>
 <p>I should say "sidewalk" and "apartment" and "color"!</p>
</article>

4.13 Matching HTML elements using selectors

There are a number of dynamic selectors that can be used with HTML. This section defines when these selectors match HTML elements.

:link
:visited

All a elements that have an href attribute, all area elements that have an href attribute, and all link elements that have an href attribute, must match one of :link and :visited.

:active

The :active pseudo-class must match the following elements between the time the user begins to activate the element and the time the user stops activating the element:

For example, if the user is using a keyboard to push a button element by pressing the space bar, the element would match this pseudo-class in between the time that the element received the keydown event and the time the element received the keyup event.

:enabled

The :enabled pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:disabled

The :disabled pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:checked

The :checked pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:indeterminate

The :indeterminate pseudo-class must match input elements whose type attribute is in the Checkbox state and whose indeterminate DOM attribute is set to true.

:default

The :default pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:valid

The :valid pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation and that satisfy their constraints.

:invalid

The :invalid pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation but that do not satisfy their constraints.

:in-range

The :in-range pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation and that are neither suffering from an underflow nor suffering from an overflow.

:out-of-range

The :out-of-range pseudo-class must match all elements that are candidates for constraint validation and that are suffering from an underflow or suffering from an overflow.

:required

The :required pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:optional

The :optional pseudo-class must match the following elements:

:read-only
:read-write

The :read-write pseudo-class must match the following elements:

The :read-only pseudo-class must match all other HTML elements.

Another section of this specification defines the target element used with the :target pseudo-class.

This specification does not define when an element matches the :hover, :focus, or :lang() dynamic pseudo-classes, as those are all defined in sufficient detail in a language-agnostic fashion in the Selectors specification. [SELECTORS]