W3C

HTML 5

A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML

Editor's Draft 12 August 2009

Latest Published Version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/
Latest Editor's Draft:
http://dev.w3.org/html5/rdfa/Overview.html
Previous Versions:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-html5-20090423/
http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-html5-20090212/
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-html5-20080610/
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-html5-20080122/
Editors:
Ian Hickson, Google, Inc.
David Hyatt, Apple, Inc.

Abstract

This specification defines the 5th major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web: the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In this version, new features are introduced to help Web application authors, new elements are introduced based on research into prevailing authoring practices, and special attention has been given to defining clear conformance criteria for user agents in an effort to improve interoperability.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the most recently formally published revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

The WHATWG version of this specification is available under a license that permits reuse of the specification text.

If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-html-comments@w3.org (subscribe, archives) or whatwg@whatwg.org (subscribe, archives), or submit them using our public bug database. All feedback is welcome.

We maintain a list of all e-mails that have not yet been considered and a list of all bug reports that have not yet been resolved.

Implementors should be aware that this specification is not stable. Implementors who are not taking part in the discussions are likely to find the specification changing out from under them in incompatible ways. Vendors interested in implementing this specification before it eventually reaches the Candidate Recommendation stage should join the aforementioned mailing lists and take part in the discussions.

The publication of this document by the W3C as a W3C Working Draft does not imply that all of the participants in the W3C HTML working group endorse the contents of the specification. Indeed, for any section of the specification, one can usually find many members of the working group or of the W3C as a whole who object strongly to the current text, the existence of the section at all, or the idea that the working group should even spend time discussing the concept of that section.

The latest stable version of the editor's draft of this specification is always available on the W3C CVS server and in the WHATWG Subversion repository. The latest editor's working copy (which may contain unfinished text in the process of being prepared) is also available.

There are various ways to follow the change history for the specification:

E-mail notifications of changes
HTML-Diffs mailing list (diff-marked HTML versions for each change): http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-html-diffs/latest
Commit-Watchers mailing list (complete source diffs): http://lists.whatwg.org/listinfo.cgi/commit-watchers-whatwg.org
Real-time notifications of changes:
Generated diff-marked HTML versions for each change: http://twitter.com/HTML5
All (non-editorial) changes to the spec source: http://twitter.com/WHATWG
Browsable version-control record of all changes:
CVSWeb interface with side-by-side diffs: http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/html5/spec/Overview.html
Annotated summary with unified diffs: http://html5.org/tools/web-apps-tracker
Raw Subversion interface: svn checkout http://svn.whatwg.org/webapps/

The W3C HTML Working Group is the W3C working group responsible for this specification's progress along the W3C Recommendation track. This specification is the 12 August 2009 Editor's Draft.

This specification is also being produced by the WHATWG. The two specifications are identical from the table of contents onwards.

This specification is intended to replace (be a new version of) what was previously the HTML4, XHTML 1.0, and DOM2 HTML specifications.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Stability

Different parts of this specification are at different levels of maturity.

Table of contents

  1. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Background
    2. 1.2 Audience
    3. 1.3 Scope
    4. 1.4 History
    5. 1.5 Design notes
      1. 1.5.1 Serializability of script execution
      2. 1.5.2 Compliance with other specifications
    6. 1.6 Relationships to other specifications
      1. 1.6.1 Relationship to HTML 4.01 and DOM2 HTML
      2. 1.6.2 Relationship to XHTML 1.x
    7. 1.7 HTML vs XHTML
    8. 1.8 Structure of this specification
      1. 1.8.1 How to read this specification
      2. 1.8.2 Typographic conventions
    9. 1.9 A quick introduction to HTML
  2. 2 Common infrastructure
    1. 2.1 Terminology
      1. 2.1.1 Resources
      2. 2.1.2 XML
      3. 2.1.3 DOM trees
      4. 2.1.4 Scripting
      5. 2.1.5 Plugins
      6. 2.1.6 Character encodings
    2. 2.2 Conformance requirements
      1. 2.2.1 Dependencies
      2. 2.2.2 Extensibility
    3. 2.3 Case-sensitivity and string comparison
    4. 2.4 Common microsyntaxes
      1. 2.4.1 Common parser idioms
      2. 2.4.2 Boolean attributes
      3. 2.4.3 Keywords and enumerated attributes
      4. 2.4.4 Numbers
        1. 2.4.4.1 Non-negative integers
        2. 2.4.4.2 Signed integers
        3. 2.4.4.3 Real numbers
        4. 2.4.4.4 Ratios
        5. 2.4.4.5 Percentages and lengths
        6. 2.4.4.6 Lists of integers
        7. 2.4.4.7 Lists of dimensions
      5. 2.4.5 Dates and times
        1. 2.4.5.1 Months
        2. 2.4.5.2 Dates
        3. 2.4.5.3 Times
        4. 2.4.5.4 Local dates and times
        5. 2.4.5.5 Global dates and times
        6. 2.4.5.6 Weeks
        7. 2.4.5.7 Vaguer moments in time
      6. 2.4.6 Colors
      7. 2.4.7 Space-separated tokens
      8. 2.4.8 Comma-separated tokens
      9. 2.4.9 Reversed DNS identifiers
      10. 2.4.10 References
    5. 2.5 URLs
      1. 2.5.1 Terminology
      2. 2.5.2 Dynamic changes to base URLs
      3. 2.5.3 Interfaces for URL manipulation
    6. 2.6 Fetching resources
      1. 2.6.1 Protocol concepts
      2. 2.6.2 Encrypted HTTP and related security concerns
      3. 2.6.3 Determining the type of a resource
    7. 2.7 Character encodings
    8. 2.8 Common DOM interfaces
      1. 2.8.1 Reflecting content attributes in DOM attributes
      2. 2.8.2 Collections
        1. 2.8.2.1 HTMLCollection
        2. 2.8.2.2 HTMLAllCollection
        3. 2.8.2.3 HTMLFormControlsCollection
        4. 2.8.2.4 HTMLOptionsCollection
        5. 2.8.2.5 HTMLPropertyCollection
      3. 2.8.3 DOMTokenList
      4. 2.8.4 DOMSettableTokenList
      5. 2.8.5 Safe passing of structured data
      6. 2.8.6 DOMStringMap
      7. 2.8.7 DOM feature strings
      8. 2.8.8 Exceptions
      9. 2.8.9 Garbage collection
  3. 3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Documents
      1. 3.2.1 Documents in the DOM
      2. 3.2.2 Security
      3. 3.2.3 Resource metadata management
      4. 3.2.4 DOM tree accessors
    3. 3.3 Elements
      1. 3.3.1 Semantics
      2. 3.3.2 Elements in the DOM
      3. 3.3.3 Global attributes
        1. 3.3.3.1 The id attribute
        2. 3.3.3.2 The title attribute
        3. 3.3.3.3 The lang and xml:lang attributes
        4. 3.3.3.4 The xml:base attribute (XML only)
        5. 3.3.3.5 The dir attribute
        6. 3.3.3.6 The class attribute
        7. 3.3.3.7 The style attribute
        8. 3.3.3.8 Embedding custom non-visible data
      4. 3.3.4 Element definitions
      5. 3.3.5 Content models
        1. 3.3.5.1 Kinds of content
          1. 3.3.5.1.1 Metadata content
          2. 3.3.5.1.2 Flow content
          3. 3.3.5.1.3 Sectioning content
          4. 3.3.5.1.4 Heading content
          5. 3.3.5.1.5 Phrasing content
          6. 3.3.5.1.6 Embedded content
          7. 3.3.5.1.7 Interactive content
        2. 3.3.5.2 Transparent content models
        3. 3.3.5.3 Paragraphs
    4. 3.4 APIs in HTML documents
    5. 3.5 Interactions with XPath and XSLT
    6. 3.6 Dynamic markup insertion
      1. 3.6.1 Controlling the input stream
      2. 3.6.2 document.write()
      3. 3.6.3 document.writeln()
      4. 3.6.4 innerHTML
      5. 3.6.5 outerHTML
      6. 3.6.6 insertAdjacentHTML()
  4. 4 The elements of HTML
    1. 4.1 The root element
      1. 4.1.1 The html element
    2. 4.2 Document metadata
      1. 4.2.1 The head element
      2. 4.2.2 The title element
      3. 4.2.3 The base element
      4. 4.2.4 The link element
      5. 4.2.5 The meta element
        1. 4.2.5.1 Standard metadata names
        2. 4.2.5.2 Other metadata names
        3. 4.2.5.3 Pragma directives
        4. 4.2.5.4 Other pragma directives
        5. 4.2.5.5 Specifying the document's character encoding
      6. 4.2.6 The style element
      7. 4.2.7 Styling
    3. 4.3 Scripting
      1. 4.3.1 The script element
        1. 4.3.1.1 Scripting languages
        2. 4.3.1.2 Inline documentation for external scripts
      2. 4.3.2 The noscript element
    4. 4.4 Sections
      1. 4.4.1 The body element
      2. 4.4.2 The section element
      3. 4.4.3 The nav element
      4. 4.4.4 The article element
      5. 4.4.5 The aside element
      6. 4.4.6 The h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, and h6 elements
      7. 4.4.7 The hgroup element
      8. 4.4.8 The header element
      9. 4.4.9 The footer element
      10. 4.4.10 The address element
      11. 4.4.11 Headings and sections
        1. 4.4.11.1 Creating an outline
        2. 4.4.11.2 Distinguishing site-wide headings from page headings
    5. 4.5 Grouping content
      1. 4.5.1 The p element
      2. 4.5.2 The hr element
      3. 4.5.3 The br element
      4. 4.5.4 The pre element
      5. 4.5.5 The dialog element
      6. 4.5.6 The blockquote element
      7. 4.5.7 The ol element
      8. 4.5.8 The ul element
      9. 4.5.9 The li element
      10. 4.5.10 The dl element
      11. 4.5.11 The dt element
      12. 4.5.12 The dd element
      13. 4.5.13 Common grouping idioms
        1. 4.5.13.1 Tag clouds
    6. 4.6 Text-level semantics
      1. 4.6.1 The a element
      2. 4.6.2 The q element
      3. 4.6.3 The cite element
      4. 4.6.4 The em element
      5. 4.6.5 The strong element
      6. 4.6.6 The small element
      7. 4.6.7 The mark element
      8. 4.6.8 The dfn element
      9. 4.6.9 The abbr element
      10. 4.6.10 The time element
      11. 4.6.11 The progress element
      12. 4.6.12 The meter element
      13. 4.6.13 The code element
      14. 4.6.14 The var element
      15. 4.6.15 The samp element
      16. 4.6.16 The kbd element
      17. 4.6.17 The sub and sup elements
      18. 4.6.18 The span element
      19. 4.6.19 The i element
      20. 4.6.20 The b element
      21. 4.6.21 The bdo element
      22. 4.6.22 The ruby element
      23. 4.6.23 The rt element
      24. 4.6.24 The rp element
      25. 4.6.25 Usage summary
      26. 4.6.26 Footnotes
    7. 4.7 Edits
      1. 4.7.1 The ins element
      2. 4.7.2 The del element
      3. 4.7.3 Attributes common to ins and del elements
      4. 4.7.4 Edits and paragraphs
      5. 4.7.5 Edits and lists
    8. 4.8 Embedded content
      1. 4.8.1 The figure element
      2. 4.8.2 The img element
        1. 4.8.2.1 Requirements for providing text to act as an alternative for images
          1. 4.8.2.1.1 A link or button containing nothing but the image
          2. 4.8.2.1.2 A phrase or paragraph with an alternative graphical representation: charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, illustrations
          3. 4.8.2.1.3 A short phrase or label with an alternative graphical representation: icons, logos
          4. 4.8.2.1.4 Text that has been rendered to a graphic for typographical effect
          5. 4.8.2.1.5 A graphical representation of some of the surrounding text
          6. 4.8.2.1.6 A purely decorative image that doesn't add any information
          7. 4.8.2.1.7 A group of images that form a single larger picture with no links
          8. 4.8.2.1.8 A group of images that form a single larger picture with links
          9. 4.8.2.1.9 A key part of the content
          10. 4.8.2.1.10 An image not intended for the user
          11. 4.8.2.1.11 An image in an e-mail or private document intended for a specific person who is known to be able to view images
          12. 4.8.2.1.12 General guidelines
          13. 4.8.2.1.13 Guidance for markup generators
          14. 4.8.2.1.14 Guidance for conformance checkers
      3. 4.8.3 The iframe element
      4. 4.8.4 The embed element
      5. 4.8.5 The object element
      6. 4.8.6 The param element
      7. 4.8.7 The video element
      8. 4.8.8 The audio element
      9. 4.8.9 The source element
      10. 4.8.10 Media elements
        1. 4.8.10.1 Error codes
        2. 4.8.10.2 Location of the media resource
        3. 4.8.10.3 MIME types
        4. 4.8.10.4 Network states
        5. 4.8.10.5 Loading the media resource
        6. 4.8.10.6 Offsets into the media resource
        7. 4.8.10.7 The ready states
        8. 4.8.10.8 Cue ranges
        9. 4.8.10.9 Playing the media resource
        10. 4.8.10.10 Seeking
        11. 4.8.10.11 User interface
        12. 4.8.10.12 Time ranges
        13. 4.8.10.13 Event summary
        14. 4.8.10.14 Security and privacy considerations
      11. 4.8.11 The canvas element
        1. 4.8.11.1 The 2D context
          1. 4.8.11.1.1 The canvas state
          2. 4.8.11.1.2 Transformations
          3. 4.8.11.1.3 Compositing
          4. 4.8.11.1.4 Colors and styles
          5. 4.8.11.1.5 Line styles
          6. 4.8.11.1.6 Shadows
          7. 4.8.11.1.7 Simple shapes (rectangles)
          8. 4.8.11.1.8 Complex shapes (paths)
          9. 4.8.11.1.9 Text
          10. 4.8.11.1.10 Images
          11. 4.8.11.1.11 Pixel manipulation
          12. 4.8.11.1.12 Drawing model
        2. 4.8.11.2 Color spaces and color correction
        3. 4.8.11.3 Security with canvas elements
      12. 4.8.12 The map element
      13. 4.8.13 The area element
      14. 4.8.14 Image maps
        1. 4.8.14.1 Authoring
        2. 4.8.14.2 Processing model
      15. 4.8.15 MathML
      16. 4.8.16 SVG
      17. 4.8.17 Dimension attributes
    9. 4.9 Tabular data
      1. 4.9.1 Introduction
      2. 4.9.2 The table element
      3. 4.9.3 The caption element
      4. 4.9.4 The colgroup element
      5. 4.9.5 The col element
      6. 4.9.6 The tbody element
      7. 4.9.7 The thead element
      8. 4.9.8 The tfoot element
      9. 4.9.9 The tr element
      10. 4.9.10 The td element
      11. 4.9.11 The th element
      12. 4.9.12 Attributes common to td and th elements
      13. 4.9.13 Processing model
        1. 4.9.13.1 Forming a table
        2. 4.9.13.2 Forming relationships between data cells and header cells
      14. 4.9.14 Guidance for conformance checkers
    10. 4.10 Forms
      1. 4.10.1 The form element
      2. 4.10.2 The fieldset element
      3. 4.10.3 The label element
      4. 4.10.4 The input element
        1. 4.10.4.1 States of the type attribute
          1. 4.10.4.1.1 Hidden state
          2. 4.10.4.1.2 Text state and Search state
          3. 4.10.4.1.3 Telephone state
          4. 4.10.4.1.4 URL state
          5. 4.10.4.1.5 E-mail state
          6. 4.10.4.1.6 Password state
          7. 4.10.4.1.7 Date and Time state
          8. 4.10.4.1.8 Date state
          9. 4.10.4.1.9 Month state
          10. 4.10.4.1.10 Week state
          11. 4.10.4.1.11 Time state
          12. 4.10.4.1.12 Local Date and Time state
          13. 4.10.4.1.13 Number state
          14. 4.10.4.1.14 Range state
          15. 4.10.4.1.15 Color state
          16. 4.10.4.1.16 Checkbox state
          17. 4.10.4.1.17 Radio Button state
          18. 4.10.4.1.18 File Upload state
          19. 4.10.4.1.19 Submit Button state
          20. 4.10.4.1.20 Image Button state
          21. 4.10.4.1.21 Reset Button state
          22. 4.10.4.1.22 Button state
        2. 4.10.4.2 Common input element attributes
          1. 4.10.4.2.1 The autocomplete attribute
          2. 4.10.4.2.2 The list attribute
          3. 4.10.4.2.3 The readonly attribute
          4. 4.10.4.2.4 The size attribute
          5. 4.10.4.2.5 The required attribute
          6. 4.10.4.2.6 The multiple attribute
          7. 4.10.4.2.7 The maxlength attribute
          8. 4.10.4.2.8 The pattern attribute
          9. 4.10.4.2.9 The min and max attributes
          10. 4.10.4.2.10 The step attribute
          11. 4.10.4.2.11 The placeholder attribute
        3. 4.10.4.3 Common input element APIs
        4. 4.10.4.4 Common event behaviors
      5. 4.10.5 The button element
      6. 4.10.6 The select element
      7. 4.10.7 The datalist element
      8. 4.10.8 The optgroup element
      9. 4.10.9 The option element
      10. 4.10.10 The textarea element
      11. 4.10.11 The keygen element
      12. 4.10.12 The output element
      13. 4.10.13 Association of controls and forms
      14. 4.10.14 Attributes common to form controls
        1. 4.10.14.1 Naming form controls
        2. 4.10.14.2 Enabling and disabling form controls
        3. 4.10.14.3 A form control's value
        4. 4.10.14.4 Autofocusing a form control
        5. 4.10.14.5 Limiting user input length
        6. 4.10.14.6 Form submission
      15. 4.10.15 Constraints
        1. 4.10.15.1 Definitions
        2. 4.10.15.2 Constraint validation
        3. 4.10.15.3 The constraint validation API
        4. 4.10.15.4 Security
      16. 4.10.16 Form submission
        1. 4.10.16.1 Introduction
        2. 4.10.16.2 Implicit submission
        3. 4.10.16.3 Form submission algorithm
        4. 4.10.16.4 URL-encoded form data
        5. 4.10.16.5 Multipart form data
        6. 4.10.16.6 Plain text form data
      17. 4.10.17 Resetting a form
      18. 4.10.18 Event dispatch
    11. 4.11 Interactive elements
      1. 4.11.1 The details element
      2. 4.11.2 The command element
      3. 4.11.3 The bb element
        1. 4.11.3.1 Browser button types
          1. 4.11.3.1.1 The make application state
      4. 4.11.4 The menu element
        1. 4.11.4.1 Introduction
        2. 4.11.4.2 Building menus and tool bars
        3. 4.11.4.3 Context menus
        4. 4.11.4.4 Tool bars
      5. 4.11.5 Commands
        1. 4.11.5.1 Using the a element to define a command
        2. 4.11.5.2 Using the button element to define a command
        3. 4.11.5.3 Using the input element to define a command
        4. 4.11.5.4 Using the option element to define a command
        5. 4.11.5.5 Using the command element to define a command
        6. 4.11.5.6 Using the bb element to define a command
        7. 4.11.5.7 Using the accesskey attribute on a label element to define a command
        8. 4.11.5.8 Using the accesskey attribute on a legend element to define a command
        9. 4.11.5.9 Using the accesskey attribute to define a command on other elements
    12. 4.12 Miscellaneous elements
      1. 4.12.1 The legend element
      2. 4.12.2 The div element
    13. 4.13 Matching HTML elements using selectors
  5. 5 Microdata
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. 5.1.1 The basic syntax
      2. 5.1.2 Typed items
      3. 5.1.3 Selecting names when defining vocabularies
      4. 5.1.4 Using the microdata DOM API
    2. 5.2 Encoding microdata
      1. 5.2.1 The microdata model
      2. 5.2.2 Items: the item attribute
      3. 5.2.3 Associating names with items
      4. 5.2.4 Names: the itemprop attribute
      5. 5.2.5 Values
    3. 5.3 Microdata DOM API
    4. 5.4 Predefined vocabularies
      1. 5.4.1 General
      2. 5.4.2 vCard
        1. 5.4.2.1 Examples
      3. 5.4.3 vEvent
        1. 5.4.3.1 Examples
      4. 5.4.4 Licensing works
        1. 5.4.4.1 Examples
    5. 5.5 Converting HTML to other formats
      1. 5.5.1 JSON
      2. 5.5.2 RDF
      3. 5.5.3 vCard
      4. 5.5.4 iCalendar
      5. 5.5.5 Atom
  6. 6 Web browsers
    1. 6.1 Browsing contexts
      1. 6.1.1 Nested browsing contexts
        1. 6.1.1.1 Navigating nested browsing contexts in the DOM
      2. 6.1.2 Auxiliary browsing contexts
        1. 6.1.2.1 Navigating auxiliary browsing contexts in the DOM
      3. 6.1.3 Secondary browsing contexts
      4. 6.1.4 Security
      5. 6.1.5 Groupings of browsing contexts
      6. 6.1.6 Browsing context names
    2. 6.2 The WindowProxy object
    3. 6.3 The Window object
      1. 6.3.1 Security
      2. 6.3.2 APIs for creating and navigating browsing contexts by name
      3. 6.3.3 Accessing other browsing contexts
      4. 6.3.4 Named access on the Window object
      5. 6.3.5 Garbage collection and browsing contexts
      6. 6.3.6 Browser interface elements
    4. 6.4 Origin
      1. 6.4.1 Relaxing the same-origin restriction
    5. 6.5 Scripting
      1. 6.5.1 Introduction
      2. 6.5.2 Enabling and disabling scripting
      3. 6.5.3 Processing model
        1. 6.5.3.1 Definitions
        2. 6.5.3.2 Calling scripts
        3. 6.5.3.3 Creating scripts
        4. 6.5.3.4 Killing scripts
      4. 6.5.4 Event loops
        1. 6.5.4.1 Definitions
        2. 6.5.4.2 Processing model
        3. 6.5.4.3 Generic task sources
      5. 6.5.5 The javascript: protocol
      6. 6.5.6 Events
        1. 6.5.6.1 Event handler attributes
        2. 6.5.6.2 Event handler attributes on elements, Document objects, and Window objects
        3. 6.5.6.3 Event firing
        4. 6.5.6.4 Events and the Window object
        5. 6.5.6.5 Runtime script errors
    6. 6.6 Timers
    7. 6.7 User prompts
      1. 6.7.1 Simple dialogs
      2. 6.7.2 Printing
      3. 6.7.3 Dialogs implemented using separate documents
    8. 6.8 System state and capabilities
      1. 6.8.1 Client identification
      2. 6.8.2 Custom scheme and content handlers
        1. 6.8.2.1 Security and privacy
        2. 6.8.2.2 Sample user interface
      3. 6.8.3 Manually releasing the storage mutex
    9. 6.9 Offline Web applications
      1. 6.9.1 Introduction
        1. 6.9.1.1 Event summary
      2. 6.9.2 Application caches
      3. 6.9.3 The cache manifest syntax
        1. 6.9.3.1 A sample manifest
        2. 6.9.3.2 Writing cache manifests
        3. 6.9.3.3 Parsing cache manifests
      4. 6.9.4 Updating an application cache
      5. 6.9.5 Matching a fallback namespace
      6. 6.9.6 The application cache selection algorithm
      7. 6.9.7 Changes to the networking model
      8. 6.9.8 Expiring application caches
      9. 6.9.9 Application cache API
      10. 6.9.10 Browser state
    10. 6.10 Session history and navigation
      1. 6.10.1 The session history of browsing contexts
      2. 6.10.2 The History interface
      3. 6.10.3 Activating state object entries
      4. 6.10.4 The Location interface
        1. 6.10.4.1 Security
      5. 6.10.5 Implementation notes for session history
    11. 6.11 Browsing the Web
      1. 6.11.1 Navigating across documents
      2. 6.11.2 Page load processing model for HTML files
      3. 6.11.3 Page load processing model for XML files
      4. 6.11.4 Page load processing model for text files
      5. 6.11.5 Page load processing model for images
      6. 6.11.6 Page load processing model for content that uses plugins
      7. 6.11.7 Page load processing model for inline content that doesn't have a DOM
      8. 6.11.8 Navigating to a fragment identifier
      9. 6.11.9 History traversal
      10. 6.11.10 Unloading documents
        1. 6.11.10.1 Event definition
    12. 6.12 Structured client-side storage
    13. 6.13 Links
      1. 6.13.1 Hyperlink elements
      2. 6.13.2 Following hyperlinks
        1. 6.13.2.1 Hyperlink auditing
      3. 6.13.3 Link types
        1. 6.13.3.1 Link type "alternate"
        2. 6.13.3.2 Link type "archives"
        3. 6.13.3.3 Link type "author"
        4. 6.13.3.4 Link type "bookmark"
        5. 6.13.3.5 Link type "external"
        6. 6.13.3.6 Link type "feed"
        7. 6.13.3.7 Link type "help"
        8. 6.13.3.8 Link type "icon"
        9. 6.13.3.9 Link type "license"
        10. 6.13.3.10 Link type "nofollow"
        11. 6.13.3.11 Link type "noreferrer"
        12. 6.13.3.12 Link type "pingback"
        13. 6.13.3.13 Link type "prefetch"
        14. 6.13.3.14 Link type "search"
        15. 6.13.3.15 Link type "stylesheet"
        16. 6.13.3.16 Link type "sidebar"
        17. 6.13.3.17 Link type "tag"
        18. 6.13.3.18 Hierarchical link types
          1. 6.13.3.18.1 Link type "index"
          2. 6.13.3.18.2 Link type "up"
        19. 6.13.3.19 Sequential link types
          1. 6.13.3.19.1 Link type "first"
          2. 6.13.3.19.2 Link type "last"
          3. 6.13.3.19.3 Link type "next"
          4. 6.13.3.19.4 Link type "prev"
        20. 6.13.3.20 Other link types
  7. 7 User Interaction
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 The hidden attribute
    3. 7.3 Activation
    4. 7.4 Scrolling elements into view
    5. 7.5 Focus
      1. 7.5.1 Sequential focus navigation
      2. 7.5.2 Focus management
      3. 7.5.3 Document-level focus APIs
      4. 7.5.4 Element-level focus APIs
    6. 7.6 The accesskey attribute
    7. 7.7 The text selection APIs
      1. 7.7.1 APIs for the browsing context selection
      2. 7.7.2 APIs for the text field selections
    8. 7.8 The contenteditable attribute
      1. 7.8.1 User editing actions
      2. 7.8.2 Making entire documents editable
    9. 7.9 Spelling and grammar checking
    10. 7.10 Drag and drop
      1. 7.10.1 Introduction
      2. 7.10.2 The DragEvent and DataTransfer interfaces
      3. 7.10.3 Events fired during a drag-and-drop action
      4. 7.10.4 Drag-and-drop processing model
        1. 7.10.4.1 When the drag-and-drop operation starts or ends in another document
        2. 7.10.4.2 When the drag-and-drop operation starts or ends in another application
      5. 7.10.5 The draggable attribute
      6. 7.10.6 Copy and paste
        1. 7.10.6.1 Copy to clipboard
        2. 7.10.6.2 Cut to clipboard
        3. 7.10.6.3 Paste from clipboard
        4. 7.10.6.4 Paste from selection
      7. 7.10.7 Security risks in the drag-and-drop model
    11. 7.11 Undo history
      1. 7.11.1 Introduction
      2. 7.11.2 Definitions
      3. 7.11.3 The UndoManager interface
      4. 7.11.4 Undo: moving back in the undo transaction history
      5. 7.11.5 Redo: moving forward in the undo transaction history
      6. 7.11.6 The UndoManagerEvent interface and the undo and redo events
      7. 7.11.7 Implementation notes
    12. 7.12 Editing APIs
  8. 8 Web Workers
  9. 9 Communication
    1. 9.1 Event definitions
    2. 9.2 Server-sent events
    3. 9.3 Web sockets
    4. 9.4 Cross-document messaging
      1. 9.4.1 Introduction
      2. 9.4.2 Security
        1. 9.4.2.1 Authors
        2. 9.4.2.2 User agents
      3. 9.4.3 Posting messages
      4. 9.4.4 Posting messages with message ports
    5. 9.5 Channel messaging
      1. 9.5.1 Introduction
      2. 9.5.2 Message channels
      3. 9.5.3 Message ports
        1. 9.5.3.1 Ports and garbage collection
  10. 10 The HTML syntax
    1. 10.1 Writing HTML documents
      1. 10.1.1 The DOCTYPE
      2. 10.1.2 Elements
        1. 10.1.2.1 Start tags
        2. 10.1.2.2 End tags
        3. 10.1.2.3 Attributes
        4. 10.1.2.4 Optional tags
        5. 10.1.2.5 Restrictions on content models
        6. 10.1.2.6 Restrictions on the contents of raw text and RCDATA elements
      3. 10.1.3 Text
        1. 10.1.3.1 Newlines
      4. 10.1.4 Character references
      5. 10.1.5 CDATA sections
      6. 10.1.6 Comments
    2. 10.2 Parsing HTML documents
      1. 10.2.1 Overview of the parsing model
      2. 10.2.2 The input stream
        1. 10.2.2.1 Determining the character encoding
        2. 10.2.2.2 Preprocessing the input stream
        3. 10.2.2.3 Changing the encoding while parsing
      3. 10.2.3 Parse state
        1. 10.2.3.1 The insertion mode
        2. 10.2.3.2 The stack of open elements
        3. 10.2.3.3 The list of active formatting elements
        4. 10.2.3.4 The element pointers
        5. 10.2.3.5 Other parsing state flags
      4. 10.2.4 Tokenization
        1. 10.2.4.1 Data state
        2. 10.2.4.2 Character reference data state
        3. 10.2.4.3 Tag open state
        4. 10.2.4.4 Close tag open state
        5. 10.2.4.5 Tag name state
        6. 10.2.4.6 Before attribute name state
        7. 10.2.4.7 Attribute name state
        8. 10.2.4.8 After attribute name state
        9. 10.2.4.9 Before attribute value state
        10. 10.2.4.10 Attribute value (double-quoted) state
        11. 10.2.4.11 Attribute value (single-quoted) state
        12. 10.2.4.12 Attribute value (unquoted) state
        13. 10.2.4.13 Character reference in attribute value state
        14. 10.2.4.14 After attribute value (quoted) state
        15. 10.2.4.15 Self-closing start tag state
        16. 10.2.4.16 Bogus comment state
        17. 10.2.4.17 Markup declaration open state
        18. 10.2.4.18 Comment start state
        19. 10.2.4.19 Comment start dash state
        20. 10.2.4.20 Comment state
        21. 10.2.4.21 Comment end dash state
        22. 10.2.4.22 Comment end state
        23. 10.2.4.23 Comment end bang state
        24. 10.2.4.24 Comment end space state
        25. 10.2.4.25 DOCTYPE state
        26. 10.2.4.26 Before DOCTYPE name state
        27. 10.2.4.27 DOCTYPE name state
        28. 10.2.4.28 After DOCTYPE name state
        29. 10.2.4.29 Before DOCTYPE public identifier state
        30. 10.2.4.30 DOCTYPE public identifier (double-quoted) state
        31. 10.2.4.31 DOCTYPE public identifier (single-quoted) state
        32. 10.2.4.32 After DOCTYPE public identifier state
        33. 10.2.4.33 Before DOCTYPE system identifier state
        34. 10.2.4.34 DOCTYPE system identifier (double-quoted) state
        35. 10.2.4.35 DOCTYPE system identifier (single-quoted) state
        36. 10.2.4.36 After DOCTYPE system identifier state
        37. 10.2.4.37 Bogus DOCTYPE state
        38. 10.2.4.38 CDATA section state
        39. 10.2.4.39 Tokenizing character references
      5. 10.2.5 Tree construction
        1. 10.2.5.1 Creating and inserting elements
        2. 10.2.5.2 Closing elements that have implied end tags
        3. 10.2.5.3 Foster parenting
        4. 10.2.5.4 The "initial" insertion mode
        5. 10.2.5.5 The "before html" insertion mode
        6. 10.2.5.6 The "before head" insertion mode
        7. 10.2.5.7 The "in head" insertion mode
        8. 10.2.5.8 The "in head noscript" insertion mode
        9. 10.2.5.9 The "after head" insertion mode
        10. 10.2.5.10 The "in body" insertion mode
        11. 10.2.5.11 The "in RAWTEXT/RCDATA" insertion mode
        12. 10.2.5.12 The "in table" insertion mode
        13. 10.2.5.13 The "in table text" insertion mode
        14. 10.2.5.14 The "in caption" insertion mode
        15. 10.2.5.15 The "in column group" insertion mode
        16. 10.2.5.16 The "in table body" insertion mode
        17. 10.2.5.17 The "in row" insertion mode
        18. 10.2.5.18 The "in cell" insertion mode
        19. 10.2.5.19 The "in select" insertion mode
        20. 10.2.5.20 The "in select in table" insertion mode
        21. 10.2.5.21 The "in foreign content" insertion mode
        22. 10.2.5.22 The "after body" insertion mode
        23. 10.2.5.23 The "in frameset" insertion mode
        24. 10.2.5.24 The "after frameset" insertion mode
        25. 10.2.5.25 The "after after body" insertion mode
        26. 10.2.5.26 The "after after frameset" insertion mode
      6. 10.2.6 The end
      7. 10.2.7 Coercing an HTML DOM into an infoset
      8. 10.2.8 An introduction to error handling and strange cases in the parser
        1. 10.2.8.1 Misnested tags: <b><i></b></i>
        2. 10.2.8.2 Misnested tags: <b><p></b></p>
        3. 10.2.8.3 Unexpected markup in tables
        4. 10.2.8.4 Scripts that modify the page as it is being parsed
    3. 10.3 Namespaces
    4. 10.4 Serializing HTML fragments
    5. 10.5 Parsing HTML fragments
    6. 10.6 Named character references
  11. 11 The XHTML syntax
    1. 11.1 Writing XHTML documents
    2. 11.2 Parsing XHTML documents
    3. 11.3 Serializing XHTML fragments
    4. 11.4 Parsing XHTML fragments
  12. 12 Rendering
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 The CSS user agent style sheet and presentational hints
      1. 12.2.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2.2 Display types
      3. 12.2.3 Margins and padding
      4. 12.2.4 Alignment
      5. 12.2.5 Fonts and colors
      6. 12.2.6 Punctuation and decorations
      7. 12.2.7 Resetting rules for inherited properties
      8. 12.2.8 The hr element
      9. 12.2.9 The fieldset element
    3. 12.3 Replaced elements
      1. 12.3.1 Embedded content
      2. 12.3.2 Images
      3. 12.3.3 Attributes for embedded content and images
      4. 12.3.4 Image maps
      5. 12.3.5 Tool bars
    4. 12.4 Bindings
      1. 12.4.1 Introduction
      2. 12.4.2 The bb element
      3. 12.4.3 The button element
      4. 12.4.4 The details element
      5. 12.4.5 The input element as a text entry widget
      6. 12.4.6 The input element as domain-specific widgets
      7. 12.4.7 The input element as a range control
      8. 12.4.8 The input element as a color well
      9. 12.4.9 The input element as a check box and radio button widgets
      10. 12.4.10 The input element as a file upload control
      11. 12.4.11 The input element as a button
      12. 12.4.12 The marquee element
      13. 12.4.13 The meter element
      14. 12.4.14 The progress element
      15. 12.4.15 The select element
      16. 12.4.16 The textarea element
      17. 12.4.17 The keygen element
      18. 12.4.18 The time element
    5. 12.5 Frames and framesets
    6. 12.6 Interactive media
      1. 12.6.1 Links, forms, and navigation
      2. 12.6.2 The mark element
      3. 12.6.3 The title attribute
      4. 12.6.4 Editing hosts
    7. 12.7 Print media
    8. 12.8 Interaction with CSS
      1. 12.8.1 Selectors
  13. 13 Obsolete features
    1. 13.1 Obsolete but conforming features
      1. 13.1.1 Warnings for obsolete but conforming features
    2. 13.2 Non-conforming features
    3. 13.3 Requirements for implementations
      1. 13.3.1 The applet element
      2. 13.3.2 The marquee element
      3. 13.3.3 Frames
      4. 13.3.4 Other elements, attributes and APIs
    4. 13.4 Localization
    5. 13.5 Declarative 3D scenes
  14. IANA considerations
    1. 13.1 text/html
    2. 13.2 application/xhtml+xml
    3. 13.3 text/cache-manifest
    4. 13.4 text/ping
    5. 13.5 application/microdata+json
  15. Index
  16. References
  17. Acknowledgements