This module contains features to control panning and scrolling behavior with "snap points".
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Popular UX paradigms for scrollable content frequently employ paging through content,
or sectioning into logical divisions.
This is especially true for touch interactions
where it is quicker and easier for users to quickly pan through a flatly-arranged breadth of content
rather than delving into a heirarchical structure through tap navigation.
For example, it is easier for a user to view many photos in a photo album
by panning through a photo slideshow view
rather than tapping on individual photos in an album.
However, given the imprecise nature of scrolling inputs
like touch panning and mousewheel scrolling,
it is difficult for web developers to guarantee a well-controlled scrolling experience,
in particular creating the effect of paging through content.
For instance, it is easy for a user to land at an awkward scroll offset
which leaves a page partially on-screen when panning.
To this end, we introduce scroll snap points
which enforce the scroll offsets that a scroll container’s visual viewport may end at
after a scrolling operation has completed.
1.1. Module interactions
This module extends the scrolling user interface features defined in [CSS21] section 11.1.
None of the properties in this module apply to the ::first-line and ::first-letter pseudo-elements.
This specification follows the
definition conventions from [CSS21]. Value types not defined in
this specification are defined in CSS Level 2 Revision 1 [CSS21].
Other CSS modules may expand the definitions of these value types: for
example [CSS3VAL], when combined with this module, expands the
definition of the <length> value type as used in this specification.
2. Motivating Examples
In this example, a series of images arranged in a scroll container
are used to build a photo gallery.
The scroll container is sized to the same size of the images contained therein.
Using mandatory snap points,
scrolling will always complete with a snap point aligned to the edge of the scroll container’s visual viewport.
By aligning a snap point at the edge of each image,
this creates a photo viewer were users can scroll through the images one at a time.
/* Sets up points to which scrolling
will snap along x-axis */
/* Requires that scrolling always end at a snap point when
the operation completes (hard snap) */
This example also builds a photo gallery as in example 1. However, in this example the scroll container
is larger than the photos contained within (such that multiple images may be seen simultaneously), and the image
sizes vary (such that a repeating snap interval would not be effective). Using mandatory element-based snap
points, scrolling will always complete with an image centered in the scroll container’s visual viewport.
/* Defines the center of each photo as the
coordinate that should be used for snapping */
scroll-snap-coordinate: 50% 50%;
/* Specifies that each element’s snap coordinate should
align with the center of the scroll container */
scroll-snap-destination: 50% 50%;
/* Requires that scrolling always end at a snap point
when the operation completes (hard snap). */
This example builds a paginated document that aligns each page near to (but not exactly on) the edge of the scroll container.
This allows the previous page to "peek" in from above in order to make the user aware that they are not yet at the top of the document.
Using proximity snap points instead of mandatory snap points allows the user to stop halfway through a page (rather than forcing them
to snap one page at a time). However, if a scrolling operation would finish near a snap point, then the scroll will be adjusted to
align the page as specified.
/* Defines the top center of each page as the
coordinate that should be used for snapping */
scroll-snap-coordinate: 50% 0;
/* Specifies that each element’s snap coordinate should
align with the center of the scroll container, offset
a short distance from the top edge. */
scroll-snap-destination: 50% 100px;
/* Encourages scrolling to end at a snap point when the
operation completes, if it is near a snap point */
The scroll-snap-type property is used to define how strictly snap points are enforced on the scroll container, if any are present. It defines how and when snap points are enforced on the visual viewport of the scroll container it is applied to in order to adjust scroll offset. It intentionally does not specify nor mandate any precise animations or physics used to enforce those snap points; this is left up to the user agent.
The visual viewport of this scroll container must ignore snap points, if any, when scrolled.
The visual viewport of this scroll container is guaranteed to rest on a snap point when there are no active scrolling operations. That is, it must come to rest on a snap point at the termination of a scroll, if possible. If the content changes such that the visual viewport would no longer rest on a snap point (e.g. content is added, moved, deleted, resized), the scroll offset must be modified to maintain this guarantee.
The visual viewport of this scroll container may come to rest on a snap point at the termination of a scroll at the discretion of the UA given the parameters of the scroll. If the content changes such that the visual viewport would no longer rest on a snap point (e.g. content is added, moved, deleted, resized), the scroll offset may be modified to maintain this guarantee.
Describe the guarantee as an invariant for better clarity. Include edge case behavior such as mandatory snap points when there is no satisfiable snap point.
Specifies the offset of the snap destination from the start edge of the scroll container’s visual viewport. The first value gives the x coordinate of the snap destination, the second value its y coordinate.
The scroll-snap-coordinate property is used to define the x and y coordinate within the element
which will align with the nearest ancestor scroll container’s snap-destination for the respective axis. In the case that the element has been transformed, the snap coordinate is also transformed in the same way (such that the snap-point is aligned with the element as-drawn).
How does this work with fragmentation?
Consider alternative naming besides "coordinate". Consider naming conventions like in Grid Layout for grouping properties on the container vs. items.
Specifies the offset of the snap coordinates from the start edge of the element’s border box. For each pairing, the first value gives the x coordinate of the snap coordinate, the second value its y coordinate.
How can an alternative box be specified?
Many thanks to lots of people for their proposals and recommendations, some of which are incorporated into this document.
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UAs MUST provide an accessible alternative.
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